47 WORLD GASTROENTEROLOGY NEWS JULY 2016 Editorial | Expert Point of View | Gastro 2016: EGHS-WGO | WDHD News | WGO & WGOF News | WGO Global Guidelines | Calendar of Events The 21st Norwegian National Liver Meeting Hans Lannerstedt, MD Gastroenterolgist Oslo University Hospital Oslo, Norway Øystein Rose, MD Gastroenterologist Vestre Viken Bærum Hospital Drammen, Norway Mette N. Vesterhus, MD, PhD Gastroenterologist Haukeland University Hospital Bergen, Norway Professor Chapman, University of Oxford The meeting took place at Oslo Congress Center on 15 March 2016. Organized by the Norwegian Gastroenterological Association, the meeting attracted doctors and some nurses from all over Norway, as well as guests from St. Paul’s Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and invited speaker, Professor Roger Chapman from the UK. The main focus of the meeting was liver immunology, but the program also included updated guidelines of the management of chronic liver disease and information about ongoing research projects. The venue was sponsored by the pharma-ceutical industry. This summary does not include all speakers. Immunotolerance and Autoimmunity Trine Folseraas (Norwegian PSC Re-search center (NoPSC), Oslo University Hospital (OUS)) The liver is continuously exposed to various antigens. While basically an immunotolerant organ, the liver’s immunoreactivity is crucial for the elimination of harmful antigens. An imbalance between these two proper-ties leads to autoimmune liver disease, partly dependent on genetic predis-position. Intestinal inflammation is associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) (80% IBD), auto-immune hepatitis (AIH) (15% IBD), and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) (6% celiac disease), indicating that intestinal inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis. Since autoimmunity of the liver shares many features with other autoimmune diseases, it is a paradox that PBC and PSC do not respond to steroids. The Effect of Microbiota on Liver and Bile Duct Disorders Johannes Hov (NoPSC, OUS) In a recent publication, J. Hov et al demonstrated reduction of bacterial diversity and a higher occurrence of Veillonellaceae Veillonella in patients with PSC as compared to healthy controls and patients with inflam-matory bowel disease (IBD) without PSC. The theory that pathological alterations of the gut flora plays a part in the pathogenesis in liver disease, possibly due to intestinal leakage or an impact on the homeostasis of bile acids, is strengthened by the findings of an altered composition of intestinal microbes in patients with nonalco-holic steatohepatitis (NASH). The gut microbiota may in the future yield diagnostic, and prognostic tools, and manipulating the microbiota may provide a means of therapy.
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